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In the Minahasa the obligation to make plantations produced enormous harvests of cheap coffee for a Dutch monopoly. The Minahasas suffered under this "progress", however, economic, religious and social relations with the colonisers continued to grow stronger.
The wholesale conversion to Christianity of the Minahasans by the Dutch was almost complete.
Missionary schools in Manado were the first efforts of mass education in Indonesia and its graduates obtained substantial gain in getting positions in government services, the military and others that were important.
F. 's-Jacob (1822-1901) was appointed Governor General. In the Minahasa the local heads entered into services of the government.
|Japanese Paras in Manado, 1945|| |
In North Sulawesi gold was found. The government reacted by appointing direct government in Gorontalo and closing agreements with the local kingdoms.
The allies bombed Manado heavily. During the war of independence against the returning Dutch that followed, there was bitter division between pro-Indonesian Unitarians and those favoring Dutch-sponsored federalism.
The appointment of a Manadonese Christian, Sam Ratulangi, as the first republican governor of eastern Indonesia was decisive in winning Minahasan support for the republic.
Illegal exports flourished. In June Jakarta ordered the closure of Manado port, the busiest smuggling port in the republic. Local leaders refused and Jakarta backed down.