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Home >>History >>History Timeline

History Timeline

Compiled by: Roderick C. Wahr

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Old Tondano Wedding
The child of Lingkan Wene and Juan de Avedo, by the name of Mainalo Wula'an, was married to a girl from Tanawangko. From their marriage resulted a boy who was then named Mainalo Sarani. When he became an adult, Mainalo Sarani was given the title Muntu-Untu whereas his wife was given the title Lingkan Wene.
Muntu-Untu and Lingkan Wene were baptised Christian by a Spanish missionary named Ordo Fransiscan. Then they were given the status of King of Manado.
Simon Kos, a Dutchman, official of the VOC in Ternate entered the Minahasa when it was under Spanish regime. Kos reported the results of his journey to Batavia which at that time was the center of government under control of the trade alliance of the ‘Verenigde Oost-Indiesche Compagnie”.
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Batavia in 1730
Kos reported that North Sulawesi had enough potential, in field cultivation as well as its strategical position as spice traffic route in the waters of the Moluccas towards East Asia.
The presence of the Dutch and English as controlling forces in the Maluku waters gave the Walak heads in the Minahasa breathing space to chase away the Spanish from the Minahasa by approaching the Dutch who already controlled Ternate after successfully chasing away the Portuguese forces in the waters of the Moluccas.
The meeting occured when three different Walak heads: Supit, Paat‚ and Lontoh‚ performed a diplomatic mission and succeeded in meeting the representatives of the VOC in Ternate.

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The Moluccas
War in the Moluccas where the VOC tried to enforce the cloves monopoly in a violent manner. With help of local partners the supplies to other consumers ('smuggle' according to the VOC) were prevented and cloves plantations were destroyed. The tough measures of the VOC evoked much resistance with the inhabitants of Hitu and that led to bloody fights. The Hitus obtained support from the king of Ternate and the sultan of Gowa.
Makassar in Gowa was an important trades center in South Celebes (Sulawesi) where spice was traded outside of the VOC.

Van Diemen undertook tough actions against troops of Ternate in Hoamoal (on Ceram).

Walak heads of the Minahasa, Umbo (Tonsea), Lonta’an (Kakaskasen), Lumi (Tomohon), Taulu (Wenang), Kalangi (Ares), Posuma (Tombariri), Sawij (Jurubahasa), used boats of the king of Siauw to sail to Ternate. They wanted to negotiate a cooperation with the Dutch VOC. These Minahasas are certainly not of the Walian class, they were Walak heads and Walak heads in the Minahasa are of the Tona'as class.

The Spanish lost their domination in the Sulawesi Sea to the Dutch in Europe due to the Munster Agreement.

War between the Netherlands and Portugal is continued. On West-Ceram (Hoamoal) insurrectionists from Ternate murdered 150 VOC members with their wives and children.Spain sent Bartholomeus de Soisa from the Philippines to defend the North Sulawesi position, especially the residential areas of the Minahasa community.
The Spanish resided in the area of Uwuran (Amurang) and a few places on the seashores with the help of soldiers from Makassar. The latter claimed North Sulawesi as a part of the region of the sultanate of Makassar.

Arnold de Vlamingh from Outshoorn (1608-1661) ended the war in the Moluccas with force. Hoamoal on West-Ceram was destroyed and the inhabitants were deported to Ambon. Also Ternate was punished.
The Dutch in the Minahasa got the upperhand over the Spanish.
Under the leadership of Simon Kos, the Dutch force landed on the estuary of the river and immediately started to establish a fortress at the end of the year.

The Fort ‘De_Nederlandsche_Vastigheit‚’ built from wooden beams became a violent point of conflict between the Spanish and the Dutch. Kos succeeded to convince the government in Batavia that the building of the fortress was very important to maintain the position of the Dutch in the Sulawesi Sea. By controlling the Sulawesi Sea the Dutch position in the Moluccas would be safe from the Spanish.

To reduce overproduction the cloves cultivation on Ambon was controlled from now on. Planting and harvesting were subject of stringent control, the surplus of trees were dug up.

Februari 1661
Beginning of 1661, with full support from Batavia, Kos sailed from Ternate to Manado escorted by two Dutch warships, Molucco and Diamant. This force defeated the Spanish and the Makassars up to Manado and Amurang.

The Spanish retreated from Ternate and Tidore.

1630 - 1672

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